Nearly one in three 12th-graders report past year use of some kind of vaping device, raising concerns about the impact on their health. What they say is in the device, however, ranges from nicotine, to marijuana, to 'just flavoring.' The survey also suggests that use of hookahs and regular cigarettes is declining. These findings come from the 2017 Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey of eighth, 10th and 12th graders in schools nationwide in the United States.
Scientists have created computationally designed protein assemblies, that display some functions normally associated with living things, in the search for ways to transport therapeutic cargo into specific types of cells without using viruses as vehicles. These encapsulate their own RNA genomes and evolve new traits in complex environments. They are synthetic versions of the protein shells that viruses use to protect and deliver materials. The synthetic proteins evolved better RNA packaging, resistance against degrading enzymes in blood and longer circulation time.
Antibodies are proteins produced by the human immune system to ward off foreign invaders. Our bodies mount this defense rapidly, especially if they have seen the invader before, producing the needed antibody within days of infection. But to make them in the lab, antibodies specific for just one invader can take months, and be an expensive proposition. New research looks at mimicking nature's approach while dramatically reducing the antimicrobial discovery and production time.
Researchers have developed a new tool to sequence chloroplast DNA from hundreds of plants at once, to learn more about how plant populations move. This tool, CallHap, makes it cheaper and easier to sequence the chloroplast genomes of large numbers of plants and accurately track seed dispersal across landscapes.
A genetic mutation that occurred over 700 million years ago may have contributed to the development of certain organs in human beings and other vertebrates. This change, a random error in the evolutionary process, facilitated the connection of the gene networks involved in animal embryogenesis.
Researchers have determined that a particular fusion gene has a tendency to be found in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) lesions on skin exposed frequently to the sun. The fusion gene is unique to cSCC and appears to be related to frequent sun exposure. It is believed that the work will open doors to a new form of personalized cSCC treatment.
Survivors of the first known Ebola outbreak, which occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1976, may be key to development of vaccines and therapeutic drugs to treat future outbreaks. Researchers located the 14 Ebola survivors of the 1976 outbreak who, in January 2016, were still living in the same small, remote villages in the forests of the Équateur Province of northwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Geologists exploring volcanic rocks on Scotland's Isle of Skye found something out-of-this-world instead: ejecta from a previously unknown, 60 million-year-old meteorite impact. The discovery, the first meteorite impact described within the British Paleogene Igneous Province (BPIP), opens questions about the impact and its possible connection to Paleogene volcanic activity across the North Atlantic.
Goannas have overtaken foxes as the number one predator of the endangered loggerhead turtle at its second largest Queensland nesting beach. A new study has found that since feral red foxes were controlled in the 1980s, there has been an increase in the number goanna raids on loggerhead turtle nests at Wreck Rock beach, south of Agnes Waters.
Three mathematicians have a different explanation for the accelerating expansion of the universe that does without theories of 'dark energy.' Einstein's original equations for General Relativity actually predict cosmic acceleration due to an 'instability,' they argue in a new paper.
The interaction of protein shell and active center in hydrogen-producing enzymes is crucial for the efficiency of biocatalysts. A team specifically analyzed the role of hydrogen bonds in certain enzymes from green algae, the hydrogenases.
An international team has discovered the world’s oldest known cases of breast cancer and multiple myeloma (a type of bone marrow cancer). The discoveries were made by conducting CT scans of two mummies found in the pharaonic necropolis of Qubbet el-Hawa in Aswan, Egypt.
A Dutch consortium has developed an electrical bicycle that prevents elderly people from falling. The smart Assistive Bicycle, called SOFIE, increases stability by, amongst others, a drive off assistance and by automatically lowering the saddle at low speeds.
As it squeezes down the chromatin fiber, the cohesin protein complex extrudes a growing loop of DNA -- a bit like the quick-lacing system of trail-running shoes. But what is powering the movement of the protein? A team of scientists has found that the driving force could be the supercoiling of upstream DNA. Their research is thereby adding a key piece to the puzzle of gene expression regulation.
A new study has found that people who continue to get problems from their asthma, despite receiving standard treatment, experience an improved quality of life when they are taught breathing exercises. The majority of asthma patients have some degree of impaired quality of life.